Producing my content takes time and effort. Your support makes it possible. If you enjoy any of my content, consider pledging to my Patreon. All patrons enjoy access to exclusive blog articles, video podcasts, and content reaction videos! Higher tiers enjoy collaborative content creation, one-on-one nutrition Q&As, and more!

One-time contributions can be made through my Ko-Fi page! 

Patreon Blog Articles


May, 2021

Mechanistic Circle-jerking, Part 2: LDL Oxidation on Low-PUFA Diets

  • High-SFA diets increase LDL oxidation more than high-PUFA diets.

  • Antioxidants protect LDL particles from oxidation.

  • High-PUFA diets are usually high in antioxidants.

  • High-SFA diets are usually low in antioxidants.

Do Black Swans Topple Paradigms?

  • Black swans are extremely rare, unpredictable, and incorrectly rationalized events.

  • People misuse the term black swan to describe outliers or otherwise failed predictions.

  • It has been suggested that such failed predictions invalidate entire hypotheses.

  • In the philosophy of science, this is a logical fallacy known as naive falsification.

  • Naive falsification is invalid because of the inherent incompleteness of our knowledge.

  • Having incomplete knowledge means that failed predictions are actually expected.

April, 2021

Polyunsaturated Fat and Lipid Peroxidation (An Independent Analysis)

  • It has been proposed that PUFA are toxic due to their unique capacity to oxidize.

  • When meta-analyzed, the current literature does not support this hypothesis.

  • High-PUFA diets showed a trend toward lowering markers of lipid peroxidation.

Does Nutrition Determine Satiety?

  • Virtually none of the nutritional components tested correlate strongly with satiety.

  • The only strong exception was saturated animal fat.

March, 2021

Overthinking Protein Distribution for Muscle Gains

  • Protein distribution is not limiting for muscle protein synthesis or muscle hypertrophy.

  • Consuming three meals, each containing ~0.5g/kg body weight of protein, is optimal.

  • Hitting your total daily protein target is most important for muscle mass gains.

  • How you distribute your protein is less important for muscle mass gains.

Linoleic Acid and Inflammation (An Independent Meta-Analysis of RCTs)

  • Some suggest that diets high in linoleic acid are inflammatory.

  • They're probably not.

Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Metabolic Syndrome

  • SSB consumption associates with MetS even after adjustments for energy intake.

  • In human experiments using SSBs, changes in MetS risk factors are a function of weight changes and calorie intake.

  • Epidemiology often fails to adequately capture the effect of calories on certain disease outcomes.

  • SSBs cause MetS to the extent that SSBs contribute to excessive caloric intake.

Plant-Based Diets and Blood Lipids

  • Plant-based diets only seem to lower LDL-C compared to baseline when weight is lost.

  • Plant-based diets seem to lower HDL-C compared to baseline.

  • Plant-based diets don't seem to reliably change TG compared to baseline.

  • Plant-based diets seem to lower ApoB compared to baseline, though it is plausible that weight loss is still confounding.

Do Vegetable Oils Cause Cancer?​

  • It has been suggested that the LA Veterans Administration Hospital Study demonstrates that high PUFA diets increase cancer risk.

  • Upon closer examination of the study methods and analysis methods, the increased cancer risk was very likely not a consequence of increasing PUFA intake.

  • It has also been suggested that PUFA increases skin cancer risk in epidemiology. 

  • Upon closer examination, the epidemiological data supporting this association is extremely weak.

February, 2021

HDL: Marker or Mediator?

  • Higher HDL has been associated with lower risk of CVD in observational literature.

  • However, more robust Mendelian randomization studies divulge no causal, protective link between HDL and CVD.

Does Keto Protect Against Heart Disease?

  • Ketogenic diets typically lower TG and increase HDL.

  • The TG/HDL ratio is a strong correlate for CVD outcomes because it is also a correlate for ApoB.

  • ApoB is a causal agent in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of CVD.

  • Ketogenic diets tend to increase ApoB.

  • Ketogenic diets are not likely to be uniquely protective against CVD as a function of their tendency to lower the TG/HDL ratio.

Mechanistic Circle-jerking, Part 1: Polyphenols and LDL

  • Olive oil is associated with reductions in heart disease despite the fact that it does not seem to have a reliable effect on atherogenic lipoprotein concentration.

  • The polyphenols in foods like olive oil could modify lipoprotein behaviour, rather than concentration, such that the lipoproteins themselves become less atherogenic.

Impossible Burger versus Beef

  • It has been suggested that the processed nature of Impossible burger makes it inferior to beef.

  • Upon close inspection there are good reasons to suspect that Impossible burger would lead to better health outcomes when compared to beef.

  • Eating the whole foods that are low in saturated fat and sodium is probably still optimal.

January, 2021

Bustin' Nuts for Prostate Health?

  • Ejaculating once every 1.42 days may reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

Are Artificial Sweeteners Fattening?

  • It has been suggested that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain.

  • Human experiments shows that artificial sweeteners tend to lead to weight loss.

  • Artificial sweeteners do no increase plasma glucose or plasma insulin.

Can Flaxseed Oil Increase DHA Status?

  • It has been speculated that flaxseed oil can provide us with adequate DHA through its conversion from ALA.

  • Experiments investigating the relationship between flaxseed oil and DHA show that flaxseed oil does not improve DHA status.

  • It would be prudent for vegans to supplement with plant-based sources of DHA.

Red Meat is Perfectly Safe... If You're Dutch?

  • Red meat may increase in all-cause mortality with intakes as low as 15g per day.

  • Cohorts with lower ranges of intake above 15g per day might not see the effect.

  • Understanding relevant ranges of intake is important for interpreting nutrition science.



December, 2020

Do Low Carb Diets Reverse Diabetes?

  • It has been claimed that LCHF reverse and/or remit T2DM independent of weight loss.

  • No aggregate of the available literature supports this hypothesis.

  • LCHF has not been shown to reduce fasting blood glucose independent of weight loss.

  • LCHF has not been shown to reduce HbA1C independent of weight loss.

  • LCHF has not been shown to reduce fasting insulin independent of weight loss.

Do the Guidelines Recommend a High PUFA Diet?

  • Some claim that the guidelines suggest a high omega-6/PUFA diet.

  • Following the guidelines as literally as possible, this isn't true.

  • Only absurd interpretations of the guidelines yield high PUFA intakes.

Does Cheese Increase LDL?

  • SFA-rich cheese does not seem to increase LDL-C

  • PUFA-enriched cheese lowers LDL-C.

  • The ratio of PUFA to SFA still affects LDL-C, even when cheese is the exposure.

Heart Disease: LDL or Inflammation?

  • LDL and inflammation are both independently causal of ASCVD.

  • Inflammation causes ASCVD in both high and low LDL contexts.

  • LDL causes ASCVD in the context of both high or low inflammation.

  • Interventions to lower inflammation have largely been unsuccessful in reducing the risk of ASCVD.

  • Interventions to lower LDL have been overwhelmingly successful in reducing the risk of ASCVD.

November, 2020

Cheese vs Tofu (An Independent Meta-Analysis)

  • Tofu tends to lower LDL-C.

  • Cheese doesn't necessarily increase LDL-C.

  • Eat tofu, but maybe don't sweat the cheese either.

Mechanistic Overhyping, Part 4: John McDougall on Dairy and Health

  • Dairy improves bone health in humans, including postmenopausal women.

  • High fat dairy products may encourage weight gain.

  • Many dairy foods are protect against type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

  • Certain dairy foods provide a combination of risks and benefits for different cancers.

  • Dairy is a vector for zoonotic foodborne pathogens.

  • There is no clear evidence that dairy generally increases the risk of constipation in children.

  • Canada's Food Guide does not encourage the cessation of dairy food consumption.

Does LDL Cause Cardiovascular Disease?*

  • It has been suggested that LDL are not causal in ASCVD.

  • Randomized controlled trials using eight different mechanisms to lower LDL all see reductions in ASCVD events that are predicted by the degree of LDL-lowering achieved.

  • Mendelian randomization studies investigating almost two dozen different mechanisms that lower LDL all see reductions in ASCVD events that are predicted by the degree of LDL-lowering achieved.

  • LDL is causal in ASCVD, but even if it wasn't it would still be a good idea to target LDL to reduce ASCVD events. 

October, 2020

Are Ultra-processed Foods Actually Unhealthy?

  • Many claim that ultra-processed foods are inherently harmful.

  • There is evidence that diets of primarily ultra-processed foods are harmful.

  • Diets of primarily fruit would be likely to be equally harmful.

  • Nevertheless, fruit are still assumed healthy and ultra-processed foods are still assumed unhealthy.

  • Justifications for this double-standard are not obvious and require elucidation.

  • There doesn't seem to be any robust evidence that ultra-processed foods are inherently harmful.

When Saturated Fat Reduces Heart Disease Risk*

  • Saturated fat consumption is associated with higher rates of heart disease.

  • There are sources of saturated fat that are inversely associated with heart disease.

  • Higher chocolate, cheese, and yogurt intakes associated with lower rates of CVD.

Mechanistic Overhyping, Part 3: Oils, Nuts, and LDL

  • It has been asserted that nuts are preferable to olive oil for CVD prevention due to a superior capacity to lower LDL-C.

  • Almonds do lower LDL-C more than olive oil relative to baseline.

  • Both nuts and olive oil lower CVD risk to approximately the same degree.

  • CVD risk primarily tracks ApoB, not LDL-C.

  • Neither nuts nor almonds raise or lower ApoB to a statistically significant degree.

Logical Fallacies on Nutrition-Twitter, Part 1

  • Nutrition Twitter is a good place to find examples of sophistry and logical fallacies.

September, 2020

Ketogenic Diets and Bone Mineral Density

  • There are good reasons to suspect that ketogenic diets may reduce bone mineral density.

  • When meta-analyzed, the available data seems to suggest that ketogenic diets don't seem to lower bone mineral density.

Mechanistic Overhyping, Part 2: Protein and Cancer

  • A cocky coprophilic YouTuber named Gojiman claims that dietary protein causes cancer through increased IGF-1.

  • His supporting evidence is a mendelian randomization study which shows that enormous levels of IGF-1 that seem potentially unattainable through diet alone.

  • Population data does not divulge an association between total protein and total cancer.

  • Perhaps if one is genetically predisposed to high IGF-1 levels, the highest levels of protein intake could add to one's total risk.

Mechanistic Overhyping, Part 1: Dairy and Diabetes

  • It has been claimed that palmitate is "toxic" to pancreatic β-cells due to mechanistic interactions between the two.

  • This is used as the basis for the claim that dairy products cause type II diabetes.

  • However, aggregated human outcome data and dose-response curves support an inverse association between dairy consumption and type II diabetes.

August, 2020

Are Plant-Based Diets Anti-Inflammatory?

  • Plant-based diets are typically touted as anti-inflammatory in the blogosphere.

  • Turns out it might actually be true, though more controlled trials are needed.

Weight Loss: Low Carb or Low Fat?

  • It has been suggested that low carb diets could independently increase energy expenditure and thus increase fat mass loss if given enough time.

  • When stratified by study duration, low carb diets show no detectable advantages on fat mass loss, but a statistically significant increase in energy expenditure.

  • However, these findings could be the result of methodological shortcomings within the primary studies that contribute the most statistical weight.

Why Not Eat Both?

  • There is a group of vegans who espouse complete abstinence from all added oils.

  • However, unsaturated oils reduce heart disease more than whole grains when compared to saturated fats.

  • Unsaturated oils also reduce stroke more than whole grains when compared to dairy fat.

  • As a caveat, cheese likely reduces heart disease regardless of its saturated fat content.

  • Eat whole grains, unsaturated oils, and cheese to confer greater reductions in heart disease risk.

July, 2020

Polyunsaturated Fat and Cardiovascular Disease (An Independent Analysis)

  • The absolute amount of PUFA in the diet doesn't seem to modulate CVD risk.

  • CVD risk appears to be modulated by the extent to which PUFA replaces SFA.

Olive Oil and Cardiovascular Disease (An Independent Analysis)*

  • Regular consumption of olive oil may reduce the risk of CVD and stroke.

Anti-Nutrients, Part 2: Oxalate

  • There are case reports of oxalate-induced illness and death in the literature.

  • These case reports almost universally involve individuals with pre-existing health conditions.

  • These case reports also almost universally involve juicing, blending, or otherwise processing high oxalate foods.

  • Star fruit is the only whole food associated with oxalate-induced illness, but only really in people with chronic kidney disease.

  • High oxalate mono-diets are fucking bad for you.

An Open Letter to the British Journal of Sports Medicine*

  • Zoe Harcombe is a fraud and her PhD should be revoked.

How Diet Gurus Miss the Point

  • People may be sicker due to eating poor diets, but it is mostly driven by social disparity.

  • Predatory expansions in lending created population-wide dependencies on credit.

  • People have less money, savings, and time to invest in healthy diets than before.

  • Dietary advice often ignores the social/economic barriers to healthy dietary patterns.

  • Policy changes to expand access to healthy diets are more useful than diet advice.

June, 2020


Saturated Fat and Cardiovascular Disease (An Independent Analysis)*

  • Most meta-analyses find weak or null associations between SFA and CVD.

  • Most meta-analyses are merely pooling risk ratios rather than stratifying by SFA intake.

  • When studies are stratified by SFA intake, CVD risk increases between ~15-35g/day.

  • When studies are stratified by SFA intake, no other intake range is associated with risk.

  • Comparing similarly low SFA intakes or similarly high SFA intakes yields weak results.

  • Comparing low SFA intakes to high SFA intakes reveals an increase in CVD risk.

  • This finding supports the hypothesis that SFA's relationship to CVD is sigmoidal. 

  • Typical meta-analysis methods tend to hide this relationship between SFA on CVD risk.


Vitamin B6 on a Vegan Diet

  • Vitamin B12, vitamin D, calcium, iron, and zinc aren't overly concerning on vegan diets.

  • Nutritional adequacy on a vegan diet can mostly be met with proper food selection.

  • Vitamin B6 deficiency could be more common in both vegan and vegetarian populations. 

  • Vitamin B6 from non-animal foods is not particularly bioavailable to humans.

  • Supplementing with vitamin B6 as P-5-P could be prudent on vegan diets.

May, 2020


The Benefits of High Fibre Diets.

  • Meeting the DRI for fibre intake confers consistent benefits to CVD and CHD risk.

  • There is evidence that suggests eating even more fibre could confer additional benefits.


Vitamin A: Are Animal Foods Just Chopped Liver?

  • Genetic impairments in the conversion of carotenoids to retinol do not impact retinol status or make deficiency more likely.

  • Dietary carotenoids from whole plant foods can easily maintain adequate retinol status.

  • The only case reports of vitamin A toxicity from whole foods are attributable to liver consumption.


"But My Fad Diet, Bro!", Part II: Vegan/Plant-Based Horseshit

  • Many vegan/plant-based talking points are utter nonsense.

April, 2020

Hunter-Gatherer Health is Built on Dead Children

  • Infant and child mortality rates among hunter-gatherer populations are staggering.

  • Hunter-gatherers appear healthier because the least resilient of them are already dead.

  • Reductions in child mortality likely contribute to our current rates of chronic disease.


"But My Fad Diet, Bro!", Part I: Paleo/Keto Horseshit

  • Many low-carb/keto talking points are utter nonsense.

March, 2020


What About Dietary Cholesterol?

  • Studies finding null effects of DC on CVD may be confounded by baseline DC intakes.

  • DC increases LDL cholesterol on average.

  • DC doesn't increase HDL cholesterol on average.

  • LDLp causes CVD, not LDL-C, so DC may not be a big deal after all.


Does Saturated Fat Protect LDL Particles?

  • MUFA protects LDL from oxidation as well as, if not better than, SFA.

  • MUFA increases LDL clearance and endothelial function compared to SFA.

  • The lag-time to LDL oxidation is determined primarily by antioxidant status and PUFA.

  • Plant-fat polyphenols protect LDL particles from oxidation to a greater degree than SFA.

  • There is no reason to prefer SFA over MUFA for CVD prevention.

  • Plant-derived oils tend to confer greater CVD protection than animal-derived oils.

  • The fat portion of your calories should probably be primary MUFA and PUFA.


Anti-Nutrients, Part 1: Phytate II

  • Phytate may help those with hemochromatosis avoid symptoms of iron overload.

  • Phytate seems to help mitigate the burden of AGEs in diabetic patients.

  • Eating more phytate may make you better at mitigating its harmful effects.

  • There are many promising benefits of phytate that are being actively researched.


Nutrients of Lesser Concern

  • Deficiencies in vitamin B5, manganese, and phosphorus almost never happen in free-living humans.

  • Deficiencies in choline are difficult to characterize because choline requirements largely depend on overall diet quality.

February, 2020

Do Low Carb Diets Reverse Insulin Resistance?

  • LCHF diets induce a state of insulin resistance and HCLF diets improve insulin sensitivity, as demonstrated by direct measurements of insulin sensitivity.

  • LCHF studies tend to report insulin sensitivity via HOMA-IR, which is not a direct measurement of insulin sensitivity and isn't validated in LCHF subjects.


Vitamin K2: Preventative, not Curative (Update)

  • Vitamin K2 may help to prevent arteries from calcifying.

  • Vitamin K2 may accelerate the progression of preexisting CAC.

  • Those with the highest and lowest CAC scores have the lowest chances of a heart attack.

  • Vitamin K2 may help ensure greater plaque stability by increasing the burden of CAC.


Why Does LDL Cause Heart Disease?

  • Native ApoB is necessary to initiate atherosclerosis.

  • Modifying ApoB such that it doesn't bind to intimal proteoglycans inhibits the development of atherosclerosis.

  • Get your ApoB checked.


The Elusive Choline Requirement

  • Choline requirements are difficult to characterize, but we know a baseline exists.

  • Genetics can either decrease or increase choline requirements in certain contexts.

  • Dietary choices that increase B-vitamins, betaine, and protein likely decrease choline requirements.

  • Dietary choices that increase the intakes of fat, calories, sugar, and alcohol likely increase choline requirements.

January, 2020

There's Something in the Whey

  • Whey protein isolate is apparently better than most non-soy plant-based proteins at increasing essential amino acids and leucine in the blood.

  • If your goal is sports performance or muscle hypertrophy, whey protein isolate likely as an advantage over most plant-based proteins.

  • Whey protein isolate seems to uniquely potentiate the availability of leucine to skeletal muscle when compared to most plant-based proteins.

Do Vegetable Oils Make us Hungrier?

  • There are plausible mechanisms by which linoleic acid increases hunger.

  • So far fatty acid substitution trials consistently fail to show any effect of fatty acid saturation on satiety.

  • Vegetable oils do not appear to independently increase hunger, and may even reduce it.

  • Don't guzzle oil of any variety, and enjoy your foods.


Pizza is Badass

  • Pre-made restaurant pizza usually sucks.

  • Homemade pizza can be highly nutritious.

  • Not all Western foods are garbage.


December, 2019


Healthy Processed Foods

  • There are certain processed foods that contribute positively to health.

  • Protein isolates such as whey protein can help the elderly meet their protein needs.

  • Yeast extracts are rich in B-vitamins and can improve certain markers of health.

  • Many fruit juices have been shown to have positive health benefits.

  • Consuming collagen peptides can improve tendon and skin health overall.


Anti-Nutrients, Part 1: Phytate

  • Phytate-rich foods do inhibit the absorption of minerals from other foods in the diet.

  • The phytate-to-mineral ratio of the diet is a decent proxy for overall mineral status, but is likely due to inappropriate food pairing.

  • Pairing phytate-rich foods with mineral-rich foods is the most relevant consideration regarding the inhibition of mineral absorption.

  • Food avoidance on the basis of phytate is probably unjustified.

  • Soaking, vitamin C, and perhaps even meat itself can improve the bioavailability of minerals from phytate-rich foods.

  • Many phytate-rich foods are healthy and nutritious in ways unrelated to their mineral content.


The Heuristics of Weight Loss

  • There are many explanations for obesity, but most of them are bullshit.

  • Excess calories from hyper-palatable, Western junk food likely drives obesity.

  • Limiting junk food is something almost all popular weight loss diet have in common.

  • Over-eating is difficult on a diet consisting only of whole foods.


Dietary Fructose and NAFLD

  • Fructose does increase liver fat content in hypercaloric conditions.

  • Fructose only transiently increases liver fat content in eucaloric conditions.

  • Regardless of fructose intake, obesity is the primary cause of NAFLD.

  • Weight loss reverses NAFLD regardless of the macronutrient ratios of the diet.

November, 2019


Vitamin K2: Preventative, not Curative

  • Vitamin K2 is likely to be powerfully protective against arterial calcification.

  • Vitamin K2 seems highly effective at building and maintaining bone.

  • Vitamin K2 could make pre-existing arterial calcification worse.


Do Processed Foods Make Us Fat?

  • Processed foods usually taste super awesome and can cause us to overeat.

  • Processed foods cause us to burn fewer calories, making fat gain more likely.

  • Processed foods often lack protein and can negatively affect our lean body mass.


Nutritional Ketosis and Muscle Hypertrophy

  • Muscle hypertrophy occurs when anabolism outweighs catabolism. 

  • We have an obligate need to catabolize lean tissue while in ketosis.

  • Ketogenic diets unavoidably cost us anabolic potential by default.

  • Amino acids used to make glucose cannot be used to build muscle.

  • Typical gains are still achievable in ketosis, but require extra protein.


Advantages of Early Time-Restricted Feeding?

  • eTRF seems to improve glucose disposal, insulin sensitivity, and feelings of satiety.

  • eTRF could be anti- and/or pro-inflammatory in different ways, with negative effects on blood lipids.